Given the above research findings, it is recommended that drivers with type 1 diabetes with a history of driving mishaps should never drive when their BG is less than 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l). Instead, these drivers are advised to treat hypoglycemia and delay driving until their BG is above 90 mg/dl (5 mmol/l).[48] Such drivers should also learn as much as possible about what causes their hypoglycemia, and use this information to avoid future hypoglycemia while driving.
Insulin therapy creates risk because of the inability to continuously know a person's blood glucose level and adjust insulin infusion appropriately. New advances in technology have overcome much of this problem. Small, portable insulin infusion pumps are available from several manufacturers. They allow a continuous infusion of small amounts of insulin to be delivered through the skin around the clock, plus the ability to give bolus doses when a person eats or has elevated blood glucose levels. This is very similar to how the pancreas works, but these pumps lack a continuous "feed-back" mechanism. Thus, the user is still at risk of giving too much or too little insulin unless blood glucose measurements are made.
Some studies show that certain plant foods may help your body fight inflammation and use insulin, a hormone that controls blood sugar. Cinnamon extracts can improve sugar metabolism, triggering insulin release, which also boosts cholesterol metabolism. Clove oil extracts (eugenol) have been found to help insulin work and to lower glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides. An unidentified compound in coffee (not caffeine) may enhance insulin sensitivity and lower the chances of developing type 2 diabetes.
Any form of carbohydrate is eventually broken down by the body into glucose, a simple form of sugar. While the body can use glucose for fuel, levels that exceed what  is needed are toxic to the body. In the long run, that whole wheat muffin, cup of millet, or bowl of oatmeal turns into the exact same thing as a cup of soda, a donut or a handful of candy.
As a bonus, stress relief may help you sleep better, which is important because studies show that not getting enough sleep can worsen type 2 diabetes. Sleeping less than six hours a night has also been found to contribute to impaired glucose tolerance, a condition that often precedes type 2 diabetes. In fact, a review published in 2015 in Diabetes Care analyzed 10 studies that involved more than 18,000 participants combined and found the lowest risk of type 2 diabetes in the group of participants that slept seven to eight hours per day. That’s the minimum recommended amount of sleep for most adults, according to the National Sleep Foundation.
“People need to understand the continuum of diabetes,” she says. “If they’re on an upward trajectory of insulin resistance and a downward trajectory of insulin production weight loss, healthful eating and physical activity will slow down the insulin-loss trajectory and improve insulin sensitivity.” But, she says, “If they gain weight back, the diabetes comes back.”

I’m glad you talk about personal tolerance. My doc wants me to go on a ketogenic diet, but even when on the Autoimmune Paleo Diet, my adrenals would go a bit nuts. I can’t go any longer than 6 hours without food overnight…my adrenals start pumping out the adrenalin after about 3 to 6 hours of sleep (no matter what I eat or don’t eat before bed) and I wake up with anxiety. Adding a bit of carbs (3/4 cup at dinner and 1/2 cup at lunch) has allowed me to go a full 6 hours (would love 7 or 8) but it still feels terrible when I wake up.
Obesity is a disease, not something created by lack of character. It is a hormonal disease. There are many hormones involved, and one of the main ones is a hormone called insulin. The vast majority of obese individuals are resistant to insulin and that causes a lot of trouble. So, what does being insulin-resistant mean? Insulin resistance is essentially ‘pre-pre-type 2 diabetes.’ Insulin’s job is to drive glucose or blood sugar into cells where it can be used. In a nutshell, when someone has insulin resistance, they are having trouble getting glucose where it needs to go, into the cells. It can’t all hang out in the blood after we eat, or we would all have a diabetic crisis after every meal. When there is resistance to insulin, our bodies will just make more of it. The insulin levels rise and rise and for a while, years usually, this will keep up and blood sugar will stay normal. However, eventually it can’t keep up, and even elevate insulin levels are not enough to keep blood sugar normal, and blood sugar rises. And that is diabetes.
In the study, Fung and his team randomly recruited three men, ages 40 to 67, with type 2 diabetes, who also had high cholesterol and high blood pressure. At the start of the study, the authors recorded the participants’ vitals, including their A1C (a three-month average of their blood sugar levels), their fasting blood glucose levels, their waist circumference, and their weight. All three men were on insulin and oral medication.
Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone in your pancreas that helps your body use blood sugar and keeps blood sugar within a healthy range. But in the case of type 2 diabetes, a person’s body doesn’t use insulin properly, leading to insulin resistance. When your pancreas simply can't make enough insulin or use it well enough to control blood sugar, your doctor is likely to prescribe insulin injections.
It’s like packing your clothes into a suitcase. At first, the clothes go without any trouble. After a certain point, though, it is just impossible to jam in those last 2 T-shirts. You can’t close the suitcase. The luggage is now ‘resistant’ to the clothes. It’s waaayyy harder to put those last 2 T-shirts than the first 2. It’s the same overflow phenomenon. The cell is filled to bursting with glucose, so trying to force more in is difficult and requires much higher doses of insulin.
“High glycemic index foods are going to be primarily processed foods,” says Lori Chong, RD, CDE, at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus. Those processed foods tend to have more white sugar and flour in them, which are higher on the GI, she says. Foods lower on the GI include vegetables, especially non-starchy vegetables, like broccoli, cauliflower, and leafy greens and whole-grain products, such as brown rice (as opposed to white rice), Chong says. She notes that even many fruits are low on the GI, with pineapple and dried fruit being some of the highest (Berries, apples, and pears tend to be fairly low.)

I agree with the group consensus. Type 2 diabetes can be reversed, or controlled, as long as the prescription sticks. Many people don’t know this and the word needs to be spread! I’ve worked with patients who have been able to reach a healthy BMI and eliminate the need for medications to treat type 2 diabetes after adopting a plant-based diet. A prescription to focus on increasing fiber intake (http://www.pcrm.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/health/dietary-fiber-checklist.pdf) instead of counting carbohydrates makes it easy to add, instead of subtract, from each meal. It’s a win-win for both patients and providers.

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Testosterone replacement therapy may improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic hypogonadal men. The mechanisms by which testosterone decreases insulin resistance is under study.[81] Moreover, testosterone may have a protective effect on pancreatic beta cells, which is possibly exerted by androgen-receptor-mediated mechanisms and influence of inflammatory cytokines.[82]

Cinnamon has long been reported as a good source for the treatment of diabetes, due to a study done in 2003 by Khan and associates. 60 people were tested in the group and one third of the group was given a placebo. The end results were very impressive and the overall health of the group was increased with glucose down 18 percent; LDL cholesterol and triglycerides also showed reduced levels. Everyone was excited and the word of using cinnamon spread.
The vast majority of people with diabetes, on the other hand, have the type 2 form, which is sometimes referred to as adult-onset diabetes, even though more and more children these days are developing this type. Lifestyle changes can play a vital role in controlling type 2; they are generally the initial and preferred method for regulating blood sugar levels, although oral medication and even insulin may eventually need to be added to the treatment regimen.

Together with evidence of normalization of insulin secretion after bariatric surgery (84), insights into the behavior of the liver and pancreas during hypocaloric dieting lead to a hypothesis of the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (Fig. 6): The accumulation of fat in liver and secondarily in the pancreas will lead to self-reinforcing cycles that interact to bring about type 2 diabetes. Fatty liver leads to impaired fasting glucose metabolism and increases export of VLDL triacylglycerol (85), which increases fat delivery to all tissues, including the islets. The liver and pancreas cycles drive onward after diagnosis with steadily decreasing β-cell function. However, of note, observations of the reversal of type 2 diabetes confirm that if the primary influence of positive calorie balance is removed, then the processes are reversible (21).


As time goes on, however, blood sugar levels can begin to rise again. Diabetes is a progressive disease which means that what is done today to care for it, may not work as well a year or two from now. A key to keeping blood sugar levels under control is to be active, watch portions of all foods, include all food groups and visit your doctor to make sure the blood sugar levels are staying at a safe level.
If diagnosed at an early stage, diabetes can be controlled with some minor lifestyle changes. A person can straightaway keep a check on his/her diet and start exercising on a regular basis. At any stage of diabetes, however, lifestyle changes are required. Therefore, it is better to imbibe these changes in one's life as soon as one comes to know about this disease.

However, the alternate term “reversed” often being used, may confuse people and mistake the good control of diabetes (remission) as a complete cure. Unfortunately, there is no current long term cure yet, and if one had gained back the weight they had lost or went back to old lifestyle habits, Type 2 diabetes would come back and sign and symptoms would present.
Omega 6 oils are also a relatively new addition to the diet, making their appearance in the early 1900s. Oils in this category include vegetable, canola, cottonseed, soybean, corn, safflower, sunflower, etc. Consumption of these oils increased in the 1950s when they were promoted as a “healthy” alternative to saturated fats (they weren’t). Research is now showing that consumption of these oils increases risk for obesity and can damage thyroid function. They contribute to insulin resistance and inflammation, further aggravating the poor pancreas.

Even if making small gradual changes over time doesn’t cure you, you’ll feel so much better when you give your body what it needs and when you don’t burden it with what it doesn’t need. Whether you’re reducing your risk of developing diabetes or eliminating your need for medication, it’s worth incorporating worthwhile changes so you can be the best version of yourself.
In order to reverse diabetes naturally, remove foods like refined sugar, grains, conventional cow’s milk, alcohol, GMO foods and hydrogenated oils from your diet; incorporate healthy foods like foods high in fiber, chromium, magnesium, healthy fats and clean protein, along with foods with low glycemic loads; take supplements for diabetes; follow my diabetic eating plan; and exercise to balance blood sugar.
Another remedy for the treatment of diabetes is to take one half cup of the seeds that have been heated and a half cup of water cress seeds (mustard seeds can be substituted) and a 1/4 cup of ground pomegranate peel. Place these all in a blender and pulse well to a fine powder. Add in 1/8 cup of fumitory. Each day take one teaspoon of the ground powder and one teaspoon of the oil, one hour before you eat. Do this for at least one month.
Desert Springs Hospital has developed specific protocols, computerized technology and systems to provide diabetes patients highest level of care. For example, the staff use special tools to maintain tight blood-sugar control during patient hospitalizations, such as the Glucommander, a computer that works with an insulin drip to monitor patients’ blood-sugar levels. 
Curcumin is a bright yellow chemical produced by the spice turmeric, among other plants. Curcumin seems to have multiple benefits for diabetes symptoms. It has been shown to be a marked inhibitor of reactive oxygen species that promote oxidation damage in cells. Curcumin lowers inflammatory chemicals like tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and that’s good because TNF-a causes insulin resistance and irritates fatty livers. Curcumin can reduce another pro-inflammatory chemical called NF-KB. The above-mentioned actions provide a benefit in diabetes protection and reduce the risk of developing diabetes symptoms and complications. Curcumin has also been shown to enhance pancreatic beta cell functioning and reduce fatty liver deposition. It reduces high blood sugar, A1C, and insulin resistance. It was also shown to reduce the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, and that is a higher risk in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients. A good dose is 200 to 3,000 mg a day.
Eating too many refined carbohydrates elevates your insulin levels for long periods of time and your cells start to become resistant to the effects of insulin. Think of this a bit like alcohol. When you start to drink, a single glass of wine can make you feel drunk. Once your body becomes accustomed to drinking, you need more and more alcohol to achieve the same effect. This is what happens in diabetes. You need more and more insulin to do the same thing. The problem is that too much insulin is toxic to the body.
Pancreatic islet transplantation is an experimental treatment for poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. Pancreatic islets are clusters of cells in the pancreas that make the hormone insulin. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks these cells. A pancreatic islet transplant replaces destroyed islets with new ones that make and release insulin. This procedure takes islets from the pancreas of an organ donor and transfers them to a person with type 1 diabetes. Because researchers are still studying pancreatic islet transplantation, the procedure is only available to people enrolled in research studies. Learn more about islet transplantation studies.
This healthy lifestyle we refer to is being active 150 minutes or more each week and eating a meal plan low in fat and processed sugar with 3-5 vegetables and 2-3 fruits a day most days. It does not require low or no carbohydrate diet like Atkins or counting carbohydrates every meal. Most folks do better when they spread the carbohydrates out evenly over the day.
Eating a balanced diet is vital for people who have diabetes, so work with your doctor or dietitian to set up a menu plan. If you have type 1 diabetes, the timing of your insulin dosage is determined by activity and diet. When you eat and how much you eat are just as important as what you eat. Usually, doctors recommend three small meals and three to four snacks every day to maintain the proper balance between sugar and insulin in the blood.
I’ve done this for years and I do it each time I’m pregnant in place of the glucose test. It is a cheap and easy way to keep insulin levels in check and see how your body responds to certain foods. While I can offer general advice on the amount of carbohydrates that should be consumed, at home glucose monitoring allows you to know exactly what your body will and won’t handle.
Some medical professionals use an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) to test for diabetes. If you’ve ever been pregnant and had to drink the sickeningly sweet sugar cocktail and then have blood drawn, you are familiar with this one. Basically, a patient is given 50-75 grams of glucose in concentrated solution and his blood sugar response is measured. I’m not a fan of this test because no one should be ingesting that much concentrated glucose, and the test is not a completely accurate measure. (Just a side note: if you are a drinker of the “Big Gulp” drinks or large amounts of soda, you are putting your body through a similar test each day! Eventually, your body will respond, probably with something like “Fine, you want diabetes, I’ll show you diabetes!)
“Our findings suggest that even if you have had type 2 diabetes for six years, putting the disease into remission is feasible”, says Prof Michael Lean from the University of Glasgow who co-led the study. “In contrast to other approaches, we focus on the need for long-term maintenance of weight loss through diet and exercise and encourage flexibility to optimise individual results.”
Could restricting your diet for a couple of days a week put type 2 diabetes in remission? That’s the controversial claim scientists of a small new study are making as they fan the fire around a diet fad known as intermittent fasting. But many health professionals, including those at the American Diabetes Association, argue that the approach can be dangerous for people with diabetes, whose bodies cannot control their blood sugar without careful diet, medication, and sometimes insulin management.
Magnesium is high in green leafy vegetables, nuts, beans, and grains, but we remove most beans and all grains from the diet of patients, which is why using magnesium as part of a natural remedy for diabetes can be beneficial. Low intracellular magnesium can cause insulin resistance. Dosing of up to 500 mg a day is fine, but higher than that may result in diarrhea in patients.
Bitter in taste, neem is beneficial in treating diabetes. Studies have proved that incorporating Indian lilac can maintain blood sugar levels stimulating insulin activity without hindrance. Although natural sources do not contain adverse effects, it is still suggested to consult with your endocrinologist in case constant high glucose content in the bloodstream.

Other research conducted at the same institute studied possible regeneration of the islets of langerhans in rats that were made diabetic for the study and then given gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts. The diabetic rats were able to double the number of their islets and beta cell numbers. Researchers felt that the herbal therapy was able to bring blood sugar stability by repairing the pancreas and increasing insulin secretion.

Type II diabetes is more common than Type I diabetes in India. Type II diabetes usually happens to people who are above the age of 40. This type of diabetes is caused due to insulin resistance. In this case, the pancreas produces insulin but the body is not able to respond to it properly. There can be many reasons behind type II diabetes. Some of the reasons can be being overweight, high blood pressure, having a poor diet, taking too much stress, hormone imbalance, certain medications and leading a sedentary lifestyle. Though type II diabetes can be reversed.
Blood sugar level is measured by means of a glucose meter, with the result either in mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter in the US) or mmol/L (millimoles per litre in Canada and Eastern Europe) of blood. The average normal person has an average fasting glucose level of 4.5 mmol/L (81 mg/dL), with a lows of down to 2.5 and up to 5.4 mmol/L (65 to 98 mg/dL).[7]
Before making any fiber recommendations, Dean has her patients tested for “pancreatic insufficiency.” She believes people with pancreatic insufficiency should be given digestive enzymes along with fiber, “otherwise the fiber will just bloat them up, and they’ll be quite unhappy,” she says. Dean uses a glucomannan fiber supplement for her patients with type 2 diabetes.
Any food that you ingest is processed and metabolized by the body. Food is broken down into the various building blocks the body needs, and what cannot be metabolized or used is processed and removed by the liver. Protein and fats are used for muscle and tissue regeneration and other processes in the body. Carbohydrates are typically a fast fuel for the body, but when more are eaten that the body immediately needs, they must be stored. A simple explanation from a previous post:

For seven days take 6 teaspoons of the oil. Take the oil three different times of the day. Then take 2 teaspoons in the morning and 2 in the evening for 4 days. Follow by taking 2 teaspoons of the oil for two days. Take plenty of water in the morning and rub the oil all over the body for 10 days. You must mix the oil with fruit juice. Repeat this treatment if you do not see any improvement.
The bottom line is that diabetes can be bad news—but this doesn’t have to be the case. Interventions can prevent or delay the disease in people with prediabetes. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a large study of people at high risk of diabetes, has established a prevention plan that’s both feasible and cost-effective. The DPP showed that weight loss and increased physical activity reduced the development of type 2 diabetes by 58% during a three-year period.
Any form of carbohydrate is eventually broken down by the body into glucose, a simple form of sugar. While the body can use glucose for fuel, levels that exceed what  is needed are toxic to the body. In the long run, that whole wheat muffin, cup of millet, or bowl of oatmeal turns into the exact same thing as a cup of soda, a donut or a handful of candy.

Although the promises are big, these technologies are still far from the market. First, clinical trials will have to show they do work. Then, the price could be steep, as cell therapy precedents for other applications, such as oncology, come with price tags that reach the six figures and are finding difficulties to get reimbursed. Considering that compared to cancer, diabetes is not an immediately life-threatening disease, health insurers in some countries might be reluctant to cover the treatment.
Thank you so much for providing this expert panel. The varying views helped me understand which areas are somewhat vague and which areas overlap. As a Type2 pre-diabetic of 7 years, I have been informed that I need to take a cholesterol drug, even though my cholesterol has always been low. I was told it’s to help remove calcification in my arteries. I have been considered obese for over 20 years and recently lost 50 lbs (I now weight 197) and am continuing to lose weight. I was told that I would always be a diabetic and would have to take medication. I was so proud of my progress (A1c now 5.6), but this news depressed me. I refused to take the cholesterol drug until I could do some research. This expert panel helped me to realize that it is possible to get off the medication if I continue to eat a healthy diet (low saturated fats) and exercise at least 150 minutes a week. Thank you!
Diabetes is a growing global epidemic that affects millions of people worldwide, but recent studies on various natural remedies for diabetes provide hope for reversing this disease. From adopting a fasting-mimicking diet to incorporating superfoods like spirulina and ginseng, there are lots of natural options that provide long-lasting results. Committing to healthy choices and positive lifestyle changes has helped many people overcome the disease, proving that Diabetes does not have to be a life sentence.

According to a review of clinical trials published in December 2014 in JAMA Surgery, people with diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery had greater weight loss than those who received nonsurgical treatment, and the surgery was more effective in helping obese participants get diabetes under control. An article on the notable Surgical Treatment and Medications Potentially Eradicate Diabetes Efficiently trial, which was published in February 2017 in the New England Journal of Medicine, suggests that gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy helped people with diabetes attain better glycemic control than medication alone. Compared with the medication-only group, people who underwent the surgeries also saw greater reductions in heart disease risk and medication use, as well as an improved quality of life.
Try to keep carbohydrate amounts stable across the day (some choose lower carbohydrate targets), stand more and sit less and include activities that increase the heart rate and also strength based activities most days across the week. Think about the amount of stress you experience to see how it is increasing your blood glucose levels. If you smoke – stop because it is speeding up the damage to your blood vessels. If you drink alcohol, limit how much you drink.
Genetic predisposition to liver problems or certain autoimmune diseases often correlate to higher rates of diabetes. This is likely because proper insulin response is handled by the pancreas and liver, so problems here could affect the body’s normal response. Studies have linked certain autoimmune disease and leaky gut syndrome with higher instances of diabetes also, so this correlation is logical as well.
Exercise– Even the mainstream medical community recognizes the advantage of exercise, as it increases the muscles ability to use insulin and over time can help fix insulin resistance. All exercise isn’t created equal though and fortunately, smaller amounts of high intensity exercise have been shown to have a better effect on insulin levels (and weight loss) than an hour of daily moderate cardio. According to the Healthy Skeptic: “A pair of studies done at McMaster University found that “6-minutes of pure, hard exercise once a week could be just as effective as an hour of daily moderate activity“, according to the June 6, 2005 CNN article reporting on the study.” I recommend high intensity exercise anyway for its various health advantages, and it is great for diabetes control. too.
If I could only prescribe one supplement for a diabetes patient, I would prescribe R-alpha-lipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid has numerous benefits to the diabetic patient. It is a water- and fat-soluble antioxidant and has been shown to protect patients with fatty liver from liver disease progression. It can help reduce insulin resistance and has been shown to protect people with diabetes from developing complications in their nerves, eyes, and kidneys. R-ALA can prevent glycosylation of proteins, which reduces the A1C level. It is safe, although very rarely it can cause stomach upset. Alpha-lipoic acid is listed either as ALA or R-ALA. When listed as ALA, this means it contains two forms—the S isomer form and the R isomer form, in a 50:50 ratio. The key is to find a product that says it contains “R-ALA” instead of just “ALA.” A good daily working dose of R-ALA is 300 to 1,200 mg a day, which is the equivalent of 600 to 2,400 mg a day of regular ALA, if you buy a regular ALA listed product.

Research is constantly giving us more information on diabetes and the various factors that contribute to its steady rise in society over the last few decades. Since most theories on diabetes are just that- theories, research for yourself and figure out your best way or preventing or reversing diabetes. I’ve compiled the best of my own research above, but do your own, too! At the least, please consider making some positive changes to help keep yourself disease free (or become disease free).
Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects an estimated 23.1 million people in the U.S., and as many as 1 in 4 people don’t know they have it.[1] Numbers have steadily climbed over the past few decades with no signs of leveling off. Diabetes symptoms include things like increased hunger, increased thirst, frequent urination, slow wound healing, and blurred vision, to name a few.

“High glycemic index foods are going to be primarily processed foods,” says Lori Chong, RD, CDE, at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus. Those processed foods tend to have more white sugar and flour in them, which are higher on the GI, she says. Foods lower on the GI include vegetables, especially non-starchy vegetables, like broccoli, cauliflower, and leafy greens and whole-grain products, such as brown rice (as opposed to white rice), Chong says. She notes that even many fruits are low on the GI, with pineapple and dried fruit being some of the highest (Berries, apples, and pears tend to be fairly low.)
Your care team may recommend that you use a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). A CGM is a wearable device that can measure blood sugar every few minutes around the clock. It's measured by a thread-like sensor inserted under the skin and secured in place. The more frequent CGM blood sugar readings can help you and the care team do an even better job of troubleshooting and adjusting your insulin doses and diabetes management plan to improve blood sugar control.
Some studies suggest that low magnesium levels may worsen blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes. There is also some evidence that magnesium supplementation may help with insulin resistance. For example, a study examined the effect of magnesium or placebo in 63 people with type 2 diabetes and low magnesium levels who were taking the medication glibenclamide. After 16 weeks, people who took magnesium had improved insulin sensitivity and lower fasting glucose levels.
Cyrus Khambatta earned a PhD in Nutritional Biochemistry from UC Berkeley after being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in his senior year of college at Stanford University in 2002. He is an internationally recognized nutrition and fitness coach for people living with type 1, type 1.5, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, and has helped hundreds of people around the world achieve exceptional insulin sensitivity by adopting low-fat, plant-based whole foods nutrition.
In other words, we can say that diabetes is a continual metabolic disorder that prevents the body from utilizing glucose totally or partially. The disorder is characterized by raised glucose absorption in the blood. When body does not have enough insulin, it cannot use or store glucose, which raises the level of glucose in the body. Diabetes is not curable, but controllable. There are several methods and remedies which can be used to tame this dreadful disease. Such is its dreadfulness that it is one of the major causes of disability and death in USA. In most of the cases, diabetes further leads to other critical diseases, like heart failure, obesity, cardiac arrest, etc. 

When you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you need to be very aware of not only what you eat, but also when and how much you eat. A Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE) at Joslin can work with you to develop a healthy meal plan that fits your lifestyle. Following a meal plan can also help you lose weight and lower your risk of developing complications.

Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent.

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